319 Age of Discovery Main article: Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery beginning in the 15th century saw the expansion of Western Europe's political and cultural influence worldwide. It requires refraining from lust, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution and, especially, rape. In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. 368 Initiated by Pope John xxiii, this ecumenical council modernised the practices of the Catholic Church, allowing the Mass to be said in the vernacular (local language) and encouraging "fully conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations". A Concise History of the Catholic Church. 215 The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the Byzantine Rite, in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the Alexandrian Rite ; the Syriac Rite ; the Armenian Rite ; the Maronite Rite and the Chaldean Rite. 114 115 This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in universal judgement of all mankind. 181 The sacrament is also referred to as Unction, and in the past as Extreme Unction, and it is one of the three sacraments that constitute the last rites, together with Penance and Viaticum (Eucharist). " cceo, Canons 55150". 120 The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God. For other uses, see. New York Times, Pope Says Church Is 'Obsessed' With Gays, Abortion and Birth Control CNN, Pope hands GOP climate change dilemma " CCC, 1640". 415, collective letter of bishops of Spain, addressed to the bishops of the world. 232 The church is also actively engaged in international aid and development through organisations such as Catholic Relief Services, Caritas International, Aid to the Church in Need, refugee advocacy groups such as the Jesuit Refugee Service and community aid groups such as the Saint Vincent. As for the use of the 1962 Missal as a Forma extraordinaria of the liturgy of the Mass, I would like to draw attention to the fact that this Missal was never juridically abrogated and, consequently, in principle, was always permitted." Pope Benedict XVI "Instruction. Joseph Foundation newsletter, Vol. Isbn Fontenelle, Mrg R (1939 Seine Heiligkeit Pius XI,. 149 Pope Pius V's Roman Missal was subjected to minor revisions by Pope Clement viii in gay porno escort incontri gay siena 1604, Pope Urban viii in 1634, Pope Pius X in 1911, Pope Pius XII in 1955, and Pope John xxiii in 1962. In Hitchcock, Susan Tyler; Esposito, John. However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the Vatican II decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum. The Reformation of the 16th century resulted in Protestants breaking away. All clergy, whether deacons, priests or bishops, may preach, teach, baptise, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies.